Title: Efficient Blue Electroluminescence Using
Author(s): Kumar S., Jagielski J., Yakunin S., Rice P., Chiu Y., Wang M., Nedelcu G., Kim Y., Lin S., Santos E.J.G., Kovalenko M.V., Shih C.,
ACS Nano (29 September 2016)
Solution-processed hybrid organic–inorganic lead halide perovskites are emerging as one of the most promising candidates for low-cost light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, due to a small exciton binding energy, it is not yet possible to achieve an efficient electroluminescence within the blue wavelength region at room temperature, as is necessary for full-spectrum light sources. Here, we demonstrate efficient blue LEDs based on the colloidal, quantum-confined 2D perovskites, with precisely controlled stacking down to one-unit-cell thickness (n = 1). A variety of low-k organic host compounds are used to disperse the 2D perovskites, effectively creating a matrix of the dielectric quantum wells, which significantly boosts the exciton binding energy by the dielectric confinement effect. Through the Förster resonance energy transfer, the excitons down-convert and recombine radiatively in the 2D perovskites. We report room-temperature pure green (n = 7–10), sky blue (n = 5), pure blue (n = 3), and deep blue (n = 1) electroluminescence, with record-high external quantum efficiencies in the green-to-blue wavelength region.
Title: Multiscale Analysis for Field-Effect Penetration through Two-Dimensional Materials
Author(s): Tian T., Rice P. Santos E.J.G., Shih C.,
ACS Nano Letters, 16, No. 8, pp. 5044-5052 (10 August 2016)
Gate-tunable two-dimensional (2D) materials-based quantum capacitors (QCs) and van der Waals heterostructures involve tuning transport or optoelectronic characteristics by the field effect. Recent studies have attributed the observed gate-tunable characteristics to the change of the Fermi level in the first 2D layer adjacent to the dielectrics, whereas the penetration of the field effect through the one-molecule-thick material is often ignored or oversimplified. Here, we present a multiscale theoretical approach that combines first-principles electronic structure calculations and the Poisson–Boltzmann equation methods to model penetration of the field effect through graphene in a metal–oxide–graphene–semiconductor (MOGS) QC, including quantifying the degree of “transparency” for graphene two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) to an electric displacement field. We find that the space charge density in the semiconductor layer can be modulated by gating in a nonlinear manner, forming an accumulation or inversion layer at the semiconductor/graphene interface. The degree of transparency is determined by the combined effect of graphene quantum capacitance and the semiconductor capacitance, which allows us to predict the ranking for a variety of monolayer 2D materials according to their transparency to an electric displacement field as follows: graphene > silicene > germanene > WS2 > WTe2 > WSe2 > MoS2 > phosphorene > MoSe2 > MoTe2, when the majority carrier is electron. Our findings reveal a general picture of operation modes and design rules for the 2D-materials-based QCs.