Title: Binding modes of diketo-acid inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase: A comparative molecular dynamics simulation study
Author(s): Huang M., Grant G.H., Richards W.G.
Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling, 29, No. 1, pp. 956- (JUN 2011)
HIV-1 integrase (IN) has become an attractive target since drug resistance against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) has appeared. Diketo acid (DKA) inhibitors are potent and selective inhibitors of HIV-1 IN: however the action mechanism is not well understood. Here, to study the inhibition mechanism of DKAs we performed 10 ns comparative molecular dynamics simulations on HIV-1 IN bound with three most representative DKA inhibitors: Shionogi inhibitor, S-1360 and two Merck inhibitors L-731,988 and L-708,906. Our simulations show that the acidic part of S-1360 formed salt bridge and cation–π interactions with Lys159. In addition, the catalytic Glu152 in S-1360 was pushed away from the active site to form an ion–pair interaction with Arg199. The Merck inhibitors can maintain either one or both of these ion–pair interaction features. The difference in potencies of the DKA inhibitors is thus attributed to the different binding modes at the catalytic site. Such structural information at atomic level, not only demonstrates the action modes of DKA inhibitors but also provides a novel starting point for structural-based design of HIV-1 IN inhibitors.